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    • CRISPR CRISPR is a family of DNA sequences found in the genomes of prokaryotic organisms such as bacteria and archaea. These sequences are derived from DNA fragments of bacteriophages that had previously infected the prokaryote. They are used to detect and destroy DNA from similar bacteriophages during subsequent infections. Hence these sequences play a key role in the antiviral defense system of prokaryotes.
    • CRISPR-Display CRISPR-Display (CRISP-Disp) is a modification of the CRISPR/Cas9 system for genome editing. The CRISPR/Cas9 system uses a short guide RNA (sgRNA) sequence to direct a Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 nuclease, acting as a programmable DNA binding protein, to cleave DNA at a site of interest.
    • CRISPR gene editing CRISPR gene editing is a genetic engineering technique in molecular biology by which the genomes of living organisms may be modified. It is based on a simplified version of the bacterial CRISPR-Cas9 antiviral defense system. By delivering the Cas9 nuclease complexed with a synthetic guide RNA (gRNA) into a cell, the cell's genome can be cut at a desired location, allowing existing genes to be removed and/or new ones added in vivo.
    • CRISPR interference CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) is a genetic perturbation technique that allows for sequence-specific repression of gene expression in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. It was first developed by Stanley Qi and colleagues in the laboratories of Wendell Lim, Adam Arkin, Jonathan Weissman, and Jennifer Doudna. Sequence-specific activation of gene expression refers to CRISPR activation (CRISPRa).
    • Anti-CRISPR Anti-CRISPR is a group of proteins found in phages, that inhibit the normal activity of CRISPR-Cas, the immune system of certain bacteria. CRISPR consists of genomic sequences that can be found in prokaryotic organisms, that come from bacteriophages that infected the bacteria beforehand, and are used to defend the cell from further viral attacks. Anti-CRISPR results from an evolutionary process occurred in phages in order to avoid having their genomes destroyed by the prokaryotic cells that they will infect.
    • The CRISPR Journal The CRISPR Journal is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published every two months by Mary Ann Liebert. It covers research on all aspects of CRISPR research, including its uses in synthetic biology and genome editing. Its editor-in-chief is Rodolphe Barrangou. The journal's editorial board includes key pioneers of CRISPR technology Jennifer Doudna, Emmanuelle Charpentier, and George Church. The inaugural issue of the journal was published in February, 2018.
    • CRISPR/Cpf1 Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats from Prevotella and Francisella 1 or CRISPR/Cas12a is a DNA-editing technology analogous to the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Cas12a is an RNA-guided endonuclease of a class II CRISPR/Cas system. This acquired immune mechanism is found in Prevotella and Francisella bacteria. It prevents genetic damage from viruses. Cas12a genes are associated with the CRISPR locus, coding for an endonuclease that use a guide RNA to find and cleave viral DNA. Cas12a is a smaller and simpler endonuclease than Cas9, overcoming some of the CRISPR/Cas9 system limitations. CRISPR/Cas12a could have multiple applications, including treatment of genetic illnesses and degenerative conditions.
    • CRISPR/Cas Tools CRISPR-Cas design tools are computer software platforms and bioinformatics tools used to facilitate the design of guide RNAs (gRNAs) for use with the CRISPR/Cas gene editing system.
    • Genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 knockout screens Genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 knockout screens aim to elucidate the relationship between genotype and phenotype by ablating gene expression on a genome-wide scale and studying the resulting phenotypic alterations. The approach utilises the CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing system, coupled with libraries of single guide RNAs (sgRNAs), which are designed to target every gene in the genome. Over recent years, the genome-wide CRISPR screen has emerged as a powerful tool for performing large-scale loss-of-function screens, with low noise, high knockout efficiency and minimal off-target effects.
    • CRISPR activation CRISPR activation (CRISPRa) is a type of CRISPR tool that uses modified versions of CRISPR effectors without endonuclease activity, with added transcriptional activators on dCas9 or the guide RNAs (gRNAs). Like for CRISPR interference, the CRISPR effector is guided to the target by a complementary guide RNA. However, CRISPR activation systems are fused to transcriptional activators to increase expression of genes of interest. Such systems are usable for many purposes including but not limited to, genetic screens and overexpression of proteins of interest. The most commonly-used effector is based on Cas9, but other effectors like Cas12a have been used as well.
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