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molecular biology

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    • Molecular biology Molecular biology is the branch of biology that concerns the molecular basis of biological activity in and between cells, including molecular synthesis, modification, mechanisms and interactions. The central dogma of molecular biology describes the process in which DNA is transcribed into RNA, then translated into protein.
    • History of molecular biology The history of molecular biology begins in the 1930s with the convergence of various, previously distinct biological and physical disciplines: biochemistry, genetics, microbiology, virology and physics. With the hope of understanding life at its most fundamental level, numerous physicists and chemists also took an interest in what would become molecular biology.
    • Index of molecular biology articles This is a list of topics in molecular biology. See also index of biochemistry articles.
    • TILLING (molecular biology) TILLING is a method in molecular biology that allows directed identification of mutations in a specific gene. TILLING was introduced in 2000, using the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. TILLING has since been used as a reverse genetics method in other organisms such as zebrafish, corn, wheat, rice, soybean, tomato and lettuce.
    • Central dogma of molecular biology The central dogma of molecular biology is an explanation of the flow of genetic information within a biological system. It is often stated as "DNA makes RNA, and RNA makes protein", although this is not its original meaning. It was first stated by Francis Crick in 1957, then published in 1958:The Central Dogma. This states that once "information" has passed into protein it cannot get out again. In more detail, the transfer of information from nucleic acid to nucleic acid, or from nucleic acid to protein may be possible, but transfer from protein to protein, or from protein to nucleic acid is impossible. Information means here the precise determination of sequence, either of bases in the nucleic acid or of amino acid residues in the protein.
    • NAS Award in Molecular Biology The NAS Award in Molecular Biology is awarded by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences "for recent notable discovery in molecular biology by a young scientist who is a citizen of the United States." It has been awarded annually since its inception in 1962.
    • Cell and molecular biology Cell and molecular biology are related fields of biology that are often combined.Cell biology Molecular biology Journal of Cell and Molecular Biology Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology (disambiguation) GRE Biochemistry, Cell and Molecular Biology Test International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology Weill Institute for Cell and Molecular Biology Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics Molecular Biology of the Cell Molecular Biology of the Cell (textbook) Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology
    • Mutagenesis (molecular biology technique) In molecular biology, mutagenesis is an important laboratory technique whereby DNA mutations are deliberately engineered to produce libraries of mutant genes, proteins, strains of bacteria, or other genetically modified organisms. The various constituents of a gene, as well as its regulatory elements and its gene products, may be mutated so that the functioning of a genetic locus, process, or product can be examined in detail. The mutation may produce mutant proteins with interesting properties or enhanced or novel functions that may be of commercial use. Mutant strains may also be produced that have practical application or allow the molecular basis of a particular cell function to be investigated.
    • Primer (molecular biology) A primer is a short single-stranded nucleic acid utilized by all living organisms in the initiation of DNA synthesis. The enzymes responsible for DNA replication, DNA polymerases, are only capable of adding nucleotides to the 3’-end of an existing nucleic acid, requiring a primer be bound to the template before DNA polymerase can begin a complementary strand. Living organisms use solely RNA primers, while laboratory techniques in biochemistry and molecular biology that require in vitro DNA synthesis usually use DNA primers, since they are more temperature stable.
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